Publikations Einzelansicht

Titel: Quantitative Near-Surface Microanalysis and Depth Profiling by EPMA
 

Autor(en):
 
P. Karduck
 
Journal: Mikrochim. Acta
Jahr: 1998
Band: 15
Seite(n): 109-123


Zusammenfassung:
This paper presents a review of developments in thin film analysis by EPMA during the last 15 years and reports on the capabilities and limitations of the technique when applied to the quantitative analysis of thin coatings, multilayers and oxide layers. During the development of thin film EPMA it was always intended to apply EPMA to the analysis of elemental depth distributions in the submicron range. It is pointed out that the technique of electron beam energy variation is clearly limited to cases where some pre-information on the structure of the material or the shape of the depth profiles is available. For real EPMA-depth profiling in the depth range of 1 µm to a few µm, mechanical bevelling of the sample and analysis with low, carefully chosen beam energies is recommended as a useful technique, which is demonstrated here by application to a multilayered hard coating.<br> For a more general application of EPMA depth profiling to the submicron range, a combination of X-ray microanalysis with ion beam sputtering has been introduced recently. This technique increases the sensitivity of EPMA to detect variations in element distributions with depth and combines its capability of accurately quantifying element coverage with a better depth resolution. It is shown that with EPMA sputter depth profiling quantitative depth profiles can be deduced from calibrated X-ray intensity measurements without needing a priori information on sputter rates. This development, with its ability to quantify both composition and depth scale, complements the well established methods of surface analysis. The paper reviews first attempts in combining X-ray analysis with Auger depth profiling, introduces the basic principles and presents results from a quantitative depth profile analysis of an oxide layer on a technical Ti-Al-N hard coating; these results are compared with an SNMS analysis.

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Publikations Einzelansicht

Titel: Quantitative Near-Surface Microanalysis and Depth Profiling by EPMA
 

Autor(en):
 
P. Karduck
 
Journal: Mikrochim. Acta
Jahr: 1998
Band: 15
Seite(n): 109-123


Zusammenfassung:
This paper presents a review of developments in thin film analysis by EPMA during the last 15 years and reports on the capabilities and limitations of the technique when applied to the quantitative analysis of thin coatings, multilayers and oxide layers. During the development of thin film EPMA it was always intended to apply EPMA to the analysis of elemental depth distributions in the submicron range. It is pointed out that the technique of electron beam energy variation is clearly limited to cases where some pre-information on the structure of the material or the shape of the depth profiles is available. For real EPMA-depth profiling in the depth range of 1 µm to a few µm, mechanical bevelling of the sample and analysis with low, carefully chosen beam energies is recommended as a useful technique, which is demonstrated here by application to a multilayered hard coating.<br> For a more general application of EPMA depth profiling to the submicron range, a combination of X-ray microanalysis with ion beam sputtering has been introduced recently. This technique increases the sensitivity of EPMA to detect variations in element distributions with depth and combines its capability of accurately quantifying element coverage with a better depth resolution. It is shown that with EPMA sputter depth profiling quantitative depth profiles can be deduced from calibrated X-ray intensity measurements without needing a priori information on sputter rates. This development, with its ability to quantify both composition and depth scale, complements the well established methods of surface analysis. The paper reviews first attempts in combining X-ray analysis with Auger depth profiling, introduces the basic principles and presents results from a quantitative depth profile analysis of an oxide layer on a technical Ti-Al-N hard coating; these results are compared with an SNMS analysis.

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